Thoughts on 2019 A-Level Paper 3

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“Predictably unpredictable.” In a season of first decades, Galapagos Islands and vaccine industries, there was little by way of curveballs for both Lit papers.

While I was expecting broad concepts and terms in relation to the mind and self, the paper still surprised with the broadness of ‘self-understanding’, ‘preoccupation’ and ‘consciousness of self’ which truth be told, really could apply to almost any interpretation of the mind and self. Here are my thoughts on the questions and possible approaches to the three sections:

Section A (Unseen)

1(a) Poetry – ‘In the theatre’ by Danne Abse (Link)

  • I was caught off-guard by the medical context of the poem, which literally presents the brain/mind and an expression of selfhood as the subject matter. It would be hard not to identify these main subjects, but I imagine my students wondering what larger insight there is to be gleaned – other than the notion that the self resides within the mind!
  • Most colleges have set poems that bear strong echoes of the previous syllabus, The Individual and Society in Literature, focusing primarily on the self in relation to society and concerns of gender, social roles and age. We perhaps saw more of this in the prose extract, but this option reminds us of the precedent in the 2018 options – this topic paper is unabashedly about the mind
  • Thankfully, the epigraph helps the reader make sense of the voices and portrayal of the brain/mind in the rest of the poem. While by no means mandatory, an analysis of the last line and how the operation was one ‘I shall never forget…’ can be incorporated into an informed personal response.
  • The wide-ranging points of view – the religious sisters there to guide the patient, the dresser, the description of the surgeon’s actions, the patient, and the ‘voice’ of the patient’s brain – invite our analysis of their various reactions.
  • The mind and self of the patient should be at the centre of most responses. His initially calm reply, ‘Thank you, I feel fine’ pales to ‘blink again and again’ and finally crumbles into a ‘mashed’ brain.
  • The use of direct discourse is especially interesting, conveying a harrowing voice from the patient – ‘You sod, / leave my soul alone, leave my soul alone’ – that will be repeated in the closing stanza. The words recall the 2018 A-Level passage from Pink Mists, in which a solder’s ‘mind, his soul’, ‘that bit of’ his identity is lost to the war. The mysterious ‘ventriloquist voice’ suggests that the brain (or mind) holds the ‘soul’, the essence and consciousness of the self. Simultaneously, the patient’s trauma is vocalised in the desperate cries to ‘Leave my soul alone’, made a little humorous by the derogatory slang ‘sod’.
  • The closing stanza provides a detailed account of the patient’s mental ‘demise’ – the coldness of the voice, the metaphor of a ‘wound down’ gramophone, the ellipses that stretch out the patient’s supposed ‘voice’, and culminating in the final cold silence (compared to ‘the silence under snow’).
  • Of lesser importance are the dresser‘s panicked direct speech (‘Christ! Two more on the list…’) alongside a ‘desperate’ and ‘shocked’ Lambert Rogers and the ‘petrified’ ‘nurses, students, sister’, a collective terror at the stark erosion of a mind and self in words and an eventual silence.

 

1(b) Prose – A Tale for the Time Being by Ruth Ozeki

  • The passage allows the reader to consider two characters – the narrator and her great grandmother. The ‘I’ should take precedence in most readings. The narrator’s mental state is prefaced at the start of the extract (‘Are you very angry?’), becomes the main tension between the two characters (‘You must be very angry’, ‘I’m angry, so what?’) and reaches a quasi-resolution when the narrator takes in Old Jiko, her great grandmother’s prayer for her.
  • Old Jiko plays the foil, a direct contrast to the narrator’s teenage whirlwind of emotion in the extract. The epithet ‘old’ in this context has the effect of peacefulness (‘zazen’, her slowness of action, her nodding and her silences) and wisdom, confirmed by her thoughtfulness to ask ‘for you’.
  • The reader is compelled by Old Jiko to see the narrator’s anger as the crux of the extract: her bottling of emotion in the first extract, the outburst in lines 52-60, and its whiffs of indulgent (adolescent?! OK maybe not) self-pity.

Section B (Set Text Comparison)

2(a) Compare some of the ways in which two texts you have studied present self­-understanding or its absence.

  • There’s a pang of regret somewhere in me for not having used the term ‘self-understanding‘ as actively as I should have… in perfect hindsight. The 2018 SAJC JC2 MYE question on ‘discovering a sense of self’ and the question on ‘moments of insight and awareness’ are thankfully similar enough. Regardless, the characters/personae’s awareness/consciousness, discovery/insight, fulfilment/completion, confrontation/acceptance of their identities would all be relevant under the broad scope of ‘understanding’.
  • The second option ‘its absence‘ invites us to consider delusion, denial and ignorance as well. It is not necessary to consider ‘both sides’ of the question here; prioritise whatever is most relevant to the texts you have studied as well as the argument / personal response you wish to make.
  • As foregrounded in Q3a, students using Ariel would find it easy to analyse ‘Tulips’ or its companion poem ‘Paralytic’ to examine the personae’s sense of self. More on that later!
  • For students using Woolf and Woman, Martha and George’s ‘confrontation of their true selves’ (borrowing from the specimen paper question) at the end of the play can be aptly compared to Susan’s persistent denial of reality and lack of self-knowledge. The honest, simple language of the closing scene in Woolf is contrasted by the gibberish leading to the dramatic ‘blackout’ at the end of Ayckbourn’s play.
  • Martha’s monologue, where she presents an awareness of her own vulnerability (focusing on p98) and her self-destructive behaviour (focusing on p102), can be compared to Susan’s monologue upon Gerald’s exit (p95), which conversely shows a lack of self-understanding in her pleas for her imaginary family to return.
  • Ironically, the first act of Woman presents a moment of lucidity as Susan comes to grips with her loss of purpose and sense of self while Martha constantly sets up illusions of herself as a loved daughter and a wife who deserves better than the failure of a husband. The respective endings, as highlighted earlier, bring about a reversal of Martha and Susan’s ‘self-understanding’.

 

2(b) With reference to two texts you have studied, compare how the authors use preoccupation with thoughts or memories to explore the mind and self.

  • This was by far the more popular option for most students, and understandably so. This broad method-based question (see the word ‘use’) allows a selection of episodes or evidence that presents preoccupation, obsessiveness or indulgence in any form. In the same way that we examined the idea of ‘extremes’, you really can select anything that shows an ‘extreme’ preoccupation. If anything, the question begs for persistent close analysis of ‘the same thing’ over and over to show characters’ preoccupation.
  • Martha’s recitation of the son-myth and the ways in which it reinforces her idealised self or repairs for her sense of discontentment/ failure is the choice I would expect most students to make. This can be aptly compared to Susan’s indulgence in Andy’s saccharine words/intimacy or Lucy’s superlative praise. Alternatively, one can compare Martha’s delusions to the chaotic absurdity of Susan’s final dream/nightmare.
  • Martha or George’s memories can also be easily analysed. The Bergin Boy story presents us the latter’s attempt to assuage/transfer guilt (allegedly!) and therein re-establish his sense of who he is (i.e. someone who didn’t murder his parents). Martha too re-creates herself as a daughter who enjoys a ‘real rapport’ with her father. We can also see her preoccupation with George’s incompetence, and her subsequent destructiveness, as another point. So… the question may be unfamiliar but it opens up to a discussion of the ‘same old episodes’ (in a good way)!
  • Finding “memories” in Woman would prove challenging, aside from Gerald’s debate with Susan about Rick in his younger days, and Rick’s dispute with Susan about how she treated his girlfriends. It would be more fruitful to compare the memories in Woolf with evidence of an “obsessed” Susan – trying to garner Rick’s attention and information about his past, her attacks on Gerald in alliance with Lucy and Tony, or her desperate threats to have Gerald stay with her.
  • The use of repetition and cumulation is generally evocative of preoccupation, and we certainly see that applied in Ariel. ‘Daddy’, ‘Lady Lazarus’, ‘Getting There’ and ‘Poppies in July’ all show different types of preoccupation with self-destructive thoughts, while ‘Daddy’ and ‘Medusa’ most clearly deal with memories of the past.

Section C (Single Text Essay)

Sylvia Plath: Ariel

3(a) ‘…I have no face. I have wanted to efface myself.’ (‘Tulips’) In the light of this quotation, consider Plath’s presentation of consciousness of self in at least two poems in Ariel.

  • Of course, we covered the erosion of the self in ‘Tulips’ and ‘Paralytic’ in one lecture. The quotation from ‘Tulips’, paired with the topic, should push most responses towards a very close, comprehensive analysis of ‘Tulips’ – it by far provides the greatest range of ideas, starting from the desire to efface oneself to a possible ‘recovery’ and awareness of life.
  • The topic is not as scary as it would seem. Most would paraphrase ‘consciousness’ as ‘awareness’ or ‘understanding’ (see Q2a). But it would not be wrong to simplify to phrases we are well-acquainted with – a sense of self and the perceived / perception of self.
  • In even simpler terms, the question could be about the attitudes towards the self, and allow students to examine the drive towards self-destruction (as suggested in the quotation!). The preoccupation with death is a topic covered and assessed, so it’s really the same topic but broader and more inclusive.
  • While several poems end with rebirth or self-renewal (assessed in 2018), the renewed consciousness of life appears most pertinently in ‘Tulips’. ‘Death & Co.’, ‘A Birthday Present’ and ‘Paralytic’ on the other hand o

 

3(b) ‘Her poetry is fuelled with passion and anger.’ In the light of this comment, consider the presentation of mind and self in at least two poems in Ariel.

  • This was the overwhelming favourite, since anger / rage was covered to death (bad but intended pun) in lectures and tutorials through poems such as ‘Lady Lazarus’, ‘Daddy’ and to a lesser extent, ‘Medusa’. The first two poems are the obvious choices, so we can assure ourselves if we kept our scope focused on these two.
  • The word ‘passion’ confused some, but we can read it in broad terms – any intense emotion, including anger, can be considered ‘passion’. So the personae’s strong urge for death (as in Q3a) is relevant here as well, even if it pales in comparison to the feelings of rage in ‘Daddy’ and ‘Lady Lazarus’.

Alan Ayckbourn: Woman in Mind

9(a) In relation to ideas about mind and self, explore how the play is both a comedy and
a tragedy.

  • This was a revision question, repurposed from the 2019 JC1 Promotional Examination. Comedy itself was studied (and dramatised at Lit Fest!) in our early and later lectures on the play, and the mix of both comedy and tragedy in the denouement was a frequent feature.
  • Not a popular question, but one that was perfectly anticipated.

9(b) In relation to ideas about mind and self, discuss the dramatic presentation of relationships between parents and children in the play.

  • Our MYE question was on ‘family relationships’, which is a stark cry-out-loud theme in the play. The slightly narrower focus here encourages a comparison of the Susan-Rick and Susan-Lucy relationships.
  • If I were to write a third point, I would perhaps mount an observation on how both relationships essentially collapse in the denouement of the play. Susan’s thank you speech disintegrates into nonsense when she begins to speak of how ‘heaply cowed siam’ of her two children, parallel to the disintegration of her sense of self as a mother (or woman for that matter).

 

Edward Albee: Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

10(a) Consider Albee’s dramatic presentation of characters’ illusions about themselves in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

  • The son-myth and the death of the son-myth are the obvious ‘illusions’ referenced in the observation that ‘truth and illusion’ do not matter.
  • The topic is indeed ‘illusions about themselves‘, which opens the scope to include Martha and George’s narratives (assessed in 2018!) about the self.

 

10(b) Consider some of the ways in which attacks on the mind and self are dramatically presented in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

  • This was a surprise to me if only because the 2018 question was on how facing the truth was an ‘assault’ on the mind and self.
  • The use of aggression and violence in the play is stark and common across many internal JC examination papers including our own (2019 JC2 Prelim). Martha and George’s verbal, physical and psychological assaults on each other, as well as their guests, are ample and one should have no difficulty picking episodes for close analysis.
  • Leaning on the 2018 question, we could argue that the most intense and cruel attack (George’s killing of the son) is also the most redemptive/regenerative.

 

Lessons from the 2019 A-Levels

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We’ve been on quite the hiatus, haven’t we! It’s been two intense years with my first cohort of Lit students and with both papers over, there’s now time to gather our thoughts, sleep a little and think about next steps. Without Google Classroom, I’ll settle for the equivalent of ranting at a white wall. You, future JC2 Lit student or future me might find this and the next Paper 3-focused post useful in the lead-up to the 2020 or even 2021 A-Levels, so here’s hoping this is useful.

Unseen But Not Unpredictable?

“Thank you sir tan”, reads one of our students’ comments! Billy Colllins’ ‘Introduction to Poetry’ is a personal favourite of mine and Mr Ian Tan’s. In his words, “I knew it would come out one day due to their penchant for setting ars poetica poems”. This seems a fair assertion: the 2018 A-Level paper, as well as the Specimen Paper released way back in 2011 (for the 2013-2017 syllabus), were based on the creative process of writing a poem.

The question prompt ‘education‘ and selection of poems demands that we pay attention to the role of readers in navigating the poem (quite literally in Collins’ poem) to both understand and appreciate it on their own terms. No government censorship or sanitised readings by ‘experts’, or insistence on a unidimensional ‘confession’ from the poem.

The other question on ‘time‘ presented, for me, a rather obscure poem ‘By Air to Germany’ paired with ‘Time Difference’, the mandatory ‘Singapore poem’. The closing lines of both seem to link the concept of time to distance and separation between people: defined in these terms, we might find similarities with previous questions on loss (2018), different generations’ perceptions of each other (Specimen), care (2017), separation (2016), passing of time (2015), married love (2014) and childhood separation (2013). In particular, there are echoes of the specimen and 2015 with their consideration of familial relationships and time.

While really abstract topics like ‘time’ may appear, it is useful to note that the poems themselves still revolve around universal human experiences of love, emotions, growing old, connecting with others et al.

The topics ‘education’ and ‘time’ however, were not immediately obvious or prominent in the poems themselves. I’m inclined towards dismissing this as bad question setting, but there is merit to setting ‘awkward topics‘ and preparing students to deal with them.

Unexpected PBQ Topics, Non-Key Extracts 

We could say the same for PBQ selection and setting. The episodes/scenes for Pride and Prejudice and Measure for Measure, along with several other texts (e.g. The Great Gatsby), were not particularly crucial or prominent in the respective texts. Here are what some of our students had to say:

I think sieving out the evidence was not as intuitive as it was with other practices. Also i wish we had more practice with non-key scenes like these because it was harder to pick out points relating to the key themes / see its immediate relevance in the plot.

The idea prompt was pretty standard, but the passage was not as prominent as other scenes in Measure to discuss about morality.

There was some difficulty in linking the passage to the theme they specified and come up with points from there.

The 2018 A-Level PBQ for Pride and Prejudice was relatively ‘kind’ to the hardworking student who would have studied and close-analysed Chapter 36 to death. I have always believed that ‘the most important scene’ in any text would never be set as a PBQ, and the hypothesis is true as far as I know. If the 2019 paper were a teacher, then practising more ‘unexpected PBQs’ or ‘non-key scenes’ is the lesson learnt. I shall wait patiently for you, Lydia Bennet (P&P) and Lucio (MM)!

A tricky key word of social tensions but pretty manageable upon breaking down and linking to familiar concerns of manners, expectations and gender roles 🙂

I felt relatively prepared for this question since morality was a familiar topic that has been addressed substantially in Paper 1 lectures and tutorials!

Had a little bit of trouble linking Claudio’s speech/metaphors to ideas on morality. Maybe it could help if in lectures we did lectures around specific characters and the ideas/themes that we can best associate them with

Student sentiment on the topic or question prompt was, as for the unseen, mixed. ‘Social tensions’ was clearly awkward – the reader would easily grasp the tensions between the seemingly proud Darcy and the sycophantically intrusive Miss Bingley, but ‘social tensions’ invites a range of other interpretations that students might associate with General Paper or History. The lesson for students would be, as the above comment highlights, to always link the topic to what you have studied – one can indeed assess Darcy and Miss Bingley’s dialogue in relation to social manners and conventions.

The topic of ‘ideas about morality‘ for Measure for Measure was familiar given the essay questions and lectures devoted to the topic. Despite his role in the plot, Claudio is ultimately a minor or supporting character. The passage can be understood to present two distinct ideas on morality – human nature and its propensity to act with ‘too much liberty’ (in relation to his sexual relations with Julietta), and the morally dubious reasons for Angelo’s application of the law. In this light, the question is fair as it raises concerns of Claudio and Angelo’s moral actions – with the note that Angelo himself is not present and we hear Claudio’s interpretation of Angelo – which are debated for much of the play. So while the concern or idea is ‘obvious’, the actual passage may not be the most obvious. Angelo’s morality is called into question by Lucio, the Duke, Isabella and of course, by Angelo’s misdeeds from Act 2 onwards.

The Curious Recurrence of Questions

‘Spotting’ questions is something I try to do each year, in a safe maybe even beneficial imitation of a compulsive gambler. I was rather confident in mid-Term 3 that the focus of the Pride and Prejudice essay question would be concern or idea-based (e.g. social manners) given that the previous year had given us a character-based question centred on minor characters. The specimen paper question was based on money and marriage, so something like social manners or appearances seemed to be in order. Lo and behold:

  • Discuss the significance in the novel as a whole of Austen’s presentation of the relationship between Charlotte and Mr Collins. (2018 A-Level P1 Q5a)
  • Discuss Austen’s portrayal of the relationship between Mr and Mrs Bennet in the novel. (2019 A-Level P1 Q5a)

The same ‘trigger’ or ‘base’ recurred, disproving the assumption that topics would vary (e.g. main character > concern > minor character > method). Looking further back, this recurrence held true for the essay questions set for Austen’s Mansfield Park: Fanny’s centrality to the novel, Edmund being ‘admirable’, Mrs Norris’s role are character-based questions appeared between 2017 and 2015 while the significance of ‘Lover’s Vow’ and Fanny’s point of view are method-based questions surfacing in 2014 and 2013 respectively. The essay questions set for The Age of Innocence, a text I previously taught, were all idea-based (2013-17).

Casting our eyes to Measure for Measure, we saw how the topic itself can recur with some changes. The Duke’s disguise as Friar Lodowick, under scutiny in the 2018 PBQ, would be an important point of discussion for the 2019 essay question (on top of his moral and judicial responsibilities).

  • Write a critical commentary on the following passage (from Act 3 Scene 2), relating it to the effects of disguise, here and elsewhere in the play. (2018 A-Level P1 Q7b)
  • “The Duke is hiding from himself.” In the light of this comment, discuss Shakespeare’s dramatic portrayal of the Duke. (2019 A-Level P1 Q7a)

Recalling The Age of Innocence once more, the topic of the 2015 essay question borrowed much from the specimen paper question as well.

  • ‘This is a novel in which nothing is private.’ How far do you find this a helpful comment on social life in The Age of Innocence? (2012 Specimen P1)
  • ‘The novel is about being watched.’ How far do you agree with this comment on The Age of Innocence? (2015 A-Level P1)

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Practice Has Its Merits

What is the lesson then, you ask? Well, there is no harm in doing more of the same question trigger or topic.

The same holds especially true for Paper 3 Section C, which features only essay questions. Just as intriguingly, the concept of ‘facing the truth’ in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (linked to George’s violent treatment of Martha and equally violent ‘murder’ of the son-myth) could be re-applied to the 2019 question on ‘attacks on the mind and self’.

  • ‘Albee presents facing the truth as an assault on the mind and the self.’ How far do you agree with this view of the play? (2018 A-Level P3)
  • In relation to ideas about the mind and self, discuss the dramatic presentation of aggression and violence in the play. (2019 EJC JC2 Prelim P3)
  • Consider some of the ways in which attacks on the mind and self are dramatically presented in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (2019 A-Level P3)

Correspondingly, the specimen paper question on role-playing and performances and the 2018 question on the use of past narratives bears similarities to the 2019 question on illusions about themselves. The content for ‘past questions’ can be adapted to answer these ‘new questions’; diversity or range of topics does not appear to be a major factor in question-setting at the A-Levels.

  • ‘George and Martha are shown to play roles to avoid confronting their real selves.’ How far do you agree? (2016 Specimen P3)
  • Consider Albee’s dramatic presentation of characters’ illusions about themselves in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (2019 A-Level P3)

In my next post, I will be commenting more specifically about 2019 Paper 3 and possible approaches to answering the typically ‘broad and general’ questions in the topic paper. Till then!

Cause and Consequence

Slim Potato

This post is as much for the JC2s as it is for the JC1s, which is to say we are reviewing a JC2 Prelim question and preparing the JC1s for the upcoming Promos. The JC1s have spent many a lecture (and tutorial) going through expository cause-and-consequence questions, starting from our review of the MYE question on Martha as a ‘victim of her own expectations’ and concluding with a practice question on ‘a sense of fulfilment or lack of it affecting an individual’s identity.’ For both cohorts, we will elaborate once more on the question requirements and how to approach the question below.

Continue reading “Cause and Consequence”

Highlight Me

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This requested post provides a few suggestions on how to annotate your Paper 3 set texts. They are by no means exhaustive; in fact, I have also struggled to map out the key concerns and ideas in a way that allows us to compare them easily next year.

Do not panic if you have already highlighted and annotated your text in your own way. You can just refer to the suggestions below and see if you have missed any key ideas out, however unlikely the case.

Here are a few broad reminders and revision tips before we dive into the specifics:

  • Annotate your set texts either at the start or at the end of your revision process. Doing so at the start will help you revise your knowledge of the text. You can transfer the annotations from your lecture notes, tutorial notes and presentations (where applicable) into your exam copy. Some of you may find this a little risky, in which case…
  • Annotating your exam copy at the end of your revision cycle will help you discern what is relevant, what is crucial and certainly, what are the key words you would want to close-analyse as you write your exam answer.
  • You may highlight the same lines in different colours. Yes, this is allowed! We’ve heard from students that one institution in particular recommends using two exam copies to highlight different concerns and ideas — you can take this interesting idea up if you want… probably from next year onwards. 😉
  • And yes, please do underline key words for close analysis. This is useful for both Paper 1 (especially the PBQ where you can ‘spot’ passages beforehand) and Paper 3. Develop your own code for this if you want (e.g. double underline for superlative / absolute terms, underline punctuation for sentence types).
  • Practise referring to your exam copy while practising question analysis, writing an essay outline or writing an actual essay. The goal is to make retrieving relevant episodes, quotations and key words as easily as possible, so only practising this will put this to the test!

Continue reading “Highlight Me”

Bring on the Promos

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Format

3 hours, 3 questions. Each section in the paper carries equal marks. We generally recommend you scan through all three sections once you are permitted to do so and start with the unseen. If you are flummoxed by the unseen, move onto the set texts and you can return to the unseen in a calmer state of mind. 😉

  • Section A – Paper 3 Unseen, choose either (a) drama excerpt or (b) poem.
  • Section B – Paper 3 Woman in Mind, choose one essay question from two.
  • Section C – Paper 1 Measure for Measure, choose either (a) essay or (b) passage-based question.

Continue reading “Bring on the Promos”

Develop This!

Running dry on ideas? Only see “repetition” and the tone in one character’s lines? Really can’t find anything to say?

To develop your analysis of one point, you can think about the progression of a character / persona’s tone or effects — how the tone intensifies or shifts — while close-analysing the “key points” or “turning points” in the progression.

This close analysis means you have to: (i) explore the quotations in finer detail, looking out for nuances / minute differences (e.g. the reference to “Dad”); and (ii) explore the effects in finer detail, looking at how “desperation” is “not-so-desperate” early on, or how a patient appeal can escalate towards a firm demand.

Here are a couple of figures that might help, especially if you’re in the graph-plotting crowd. Evidently, I am too. 😉 Examples below are taken from the Proof (2000) extract in Paper 3 CA4.

Developing Your Analysis

Individuation

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In this follow-up post to Selfisms, we explore the concept of defence mechanisms and the projected self in more detail, via John Yorke’s study of Character Individuation in Into the Woods: a Five Act Journey into Story.

Characters create facades to mask the things they fear inside – we all do. A character’s facade, then, is an outer manifestation of an inner conflict. Faced with extreme stress some characters will laugh, others will cry, some will intellectualise, some may punish others. It’s a cornerstone of characterisation, but it’s a centrepiece of psychological theory too.

Continue reading “Individuation”

Their Song

TheirSong

Having started on the significance of Albee’s title in our introductory lecture ‘The Wolves Amongst Us’, a return to the title – or more precisely Martha and George’s song – would help us consolidate what we have learned about the protagonists’ relationship, as well as their internal struggles. Some confusion about the the song has also arisen, partly because ‘Who’s afraid of Virginia Woolf’ (not to be confused with the title Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?) is variously sung by Martha and George in different contexts for different purposes. These intentions stand alongside the song’s overall signification of a life without false illusions (‘Virginia Woolf’).

Continue reading “Their Song”